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14 Basic Electrical Components & Their Functions

Basic Electrical Components

Different accessory circuits share several identical basic electrical components. These components, which may be classified as “active” or “passive,” are used to build various circuits. As described, active components are those that produce and manage energy. Passive components squander or store energy in response to an electrical current. This component may be found in various peripherals such as hard drives, motherboards, etc.

Using a broad range of electronic components is a usual practice when creating a circuit. As a result, this page summarizes many electrical and electronic components used in a wide range of electronic and electrical applications. In the following paragraphs, we’ll go through each section in detail about basic electrical components.

List Of Basic Electrical Components

These are the critical electrical and electronic parts used in electrical buildings. These parts, which may be broken down into “active” and “passive” categories, are used to construct various circuits.

1. Resistors


A resistor is a basic electrical component that slows down the passage of electricity. It may also be utilized to provide a transistor with a constant voltage. When an electric current is sent through a resistor, the resistor takes in the energy and releases it as heat.

The voltage difference between a resistor’s terminals determines the magnitude of the current flowing through it. Ohm’s law is the mathematical representation of this connection. Ohm’s law says that resistance causes heat to be dissipated, with the unit of resistance being Ohms.

2. Capacitors


They serve as temporary charge storage devices. Several basic electrical components exist, the most popular being the electrolytic or ceramic disk types. A component’s capacity is typically expressed in microfarads.

3. Diodes


With a diode, electricity can only flow in one way. The cathode and anode are the two ends of a diode. Electric current flows between the anode and the cathode when both are charged to different voltages.

4. Transistors


These parts are basic electrical components that have three special pins that make them simple to spot. An applied voltage at the base terminal is required for the devices to function. After that, the base may independently regulate the two secondary terminals’ current flows.

5. Inductors


A magnetic field may be used to store energy in these passive components. A coil of wire twisted around a core is all needed to make an inductor. An internal magnet might be used. An inductor generates a magnetic field in its immediate vicinity by allowing electricity to flow through it. The magnetic field will be much more intense if a magnet is employed as the hub.

6. Microcontroller


A microcontroller is a little computer with a whole computer’s functionality on a single circuit board. RAM, ROM, timers, I/O ports, communication modules, interrupts, and a clock circuit is just some of the many features packed into the chip. These basic electrical components may be found in many embedded systems, from medical equipment to vehicle engines, power tools, toys, and office machinery.

7. Transformer


The iron core of a transformer connects two turns of wire used in electrical equipment. It provides the much-requested flexibility to adjust the supply’s current and voltage. Stepping up or down alternating current (AC) voltages is the primary use for a transformer. The transformer operates according to Faraday’s rule of electromagnetic induction, which states that two circuits that share a magnetic flux will experience mutual inductance.

Mutual induction between the two windings of a transformer allows electrical energy from one circuit to be transferred to another without physically connecting the two circuits. The basic electrical components will enable a transformer to move power from one circuit to another while maintaining the same frequency but altering the voltage.

8. Battery


A battery is used to discharge its electrochemically stored chemical energy into a form usable by electrical devices. Several cells make up the battery, each containing an anode (+), a cathode (-), and an electrolyte. A constant electrical circuit is maintained between the cathode and the anode. Primary batteries, single-use or throwaway, cannot be charged and reused. Still, secondary batteries, also known as rechargeable or secondary batteries, can.

9. Fuse


A fuse is a substance or wire used to prevent damage to components from an electrical current that is too great. Overloading a circuit causes the wires to overheat and maybe break. Thus, the flow of electricity is interrupted. As a basic electrical component, the fuse takes in some energy when it melts from the excess current. If you take I2t, you get the power taken in.

10. Integrated Circuit

Integrated Circuit

The acronym IC is often used to refer to microchips, another name for integrated circuits. Integrated circuits are semiconductors that include several resistors, capacitors, and transistors. Oscillator, microcontroller, amplifier, and timer are just a few of the many roles it may play. The function of an IC determines whether it is linear or nonlinear. The on-time performance (O/P) of linear ICs, also known as analog integrated circuits, varies continuously with the intensity of the input signal (i/p).

Amplifiers for both audio and RF frequencies are made possible by these linear ICs. Compared to analog ICs, which can process a wide range of signal intensities, digital ICs can only function in a small number of discrete states. Computers, modems, networks, or frequency counters are just a few devices that use integrated circuits. Logic gates are the building blocks in digital integrated circuits since they process binary information.

11. Relays


Electrical circuits may be controlled with a weak signal using relays, which are electromechanical switches. Each relay consists of an electromagnet, framework, electrical contacts, and a spring. Long-distance telegraph circuits were the first to make use of relays, first as amplifiers. The relay’s two courses are linked magnetically rather than electrically. In telephone exchanges, computers, etc, logical processes are performed with the help of these basic electrical components.

12. Switches


To switch from one wire to another or to “break the circuit” is to employ electrical equipment. The switch is compatible with the ON or OFF settings. Single-pole single-throw (SPST) switches are the most common, but there are also double-pole single-throw (DPST) and double-pole double-throw (DPDT) switches.

13. Motor


The primary purpose of a motor, an electrical device, is to transform electricity into mechanical energy. There is a rotor, a stator, bearings, a conduit box, an enclosure, and an eye bolt in the motor. Electric motors are vital in the most advanced computers and basic electrical components. Comparatively to pneumatic counterparts, these motors are effective at the jobs they are designed to do. There are many different kinds of engines.

14. Circuit Breakers

Circuit Breakers

Electrical circuits may be protected against overload and short circuits by using a mechanical switching mechanism known as a circuit breaker. The primary roles of these basic electrical components are to detect a defect and to cut off the power of the circuit. It has two contacts, one fixed and one that may move. Stored energy, such as a spring or compressed air, is utilized to break or make an electrical circuit with a moving contact.

The movable contact is held in place after closing by a spring in the fixed contact. There are two coils in these gadgets: a closing coil and a tripping coil. To shut the circuit, the closing coil is utilized to trip the course. The trip coil is used.


Discover the basic electrical components with the help of this article. This blog will come in handy when you start working with electrical systems. Beginning with passive components like capacitors and resistors, progressing to active ones like integrated circuits, and finishing with moving parts like batteries and motors is a simple but effective method. These basic electrical components are suitable for any complex or advanced project. Do not wait to pick up a beginner’s kit before unleashing your inner creative genius!

By Vishal

Meet Vishal Negal, a digital marketer and tech enthusiast with over 8 years of experience. Specializing in creating comprehensive how-to guides, in-depth reviews, and engaging tech-related content.

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